Bird Strikes- Important Role of Air Traffic Controllers


Birds are a major hazard to aviation and have been responsible in causing loss of aircraft, helicopters and loss of valuable human lives. Prevention of bird strikes is a joint responsibility of Aircraft, Helicopter Operators, Flight Crew, Regulator, Airport Operators and Air Traffic Controllers. An involved, aware and alert Controller can be of great assistance to air crew in mitigating the consequences of a bird hit. Read More


CUMULONIMBUS CLOUD: Cumulonimbus is a heavy and dense cloud of considerable vertical extent in the form of a mountain or huge tower, often associated with heavy precipitation, lightning and thunder. The mature Cumulonimbus cloud has a distinctive flat, anvil shaped top. Read More

Weather Observations at Aerodromes


This article describes how the aerodrome weather observation data is obtained and disseminated to the users concerned. It also outlines the basic procedures for establishing and performing weather observations as well as the requirements for the observing equipment and the qualification of the met observers. Slight country-to-country variations are possible. Read More

Angle of Attack


The Angle of Attack is the angle at which relative wind meets an Aerofoil. It is the angle formed by the Chord of the aerofoil and the direction of the relative wind or the vector representing the relative motion between the aircraft and the atmosphere.

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Aircraft Ice Protection Systems


Aircraft and engine ice protection systems are generally of two designs: either they remove ice after it has formed, or they prevent it from forming. The former type of system is referred to as a de-icing system and the latter as an anti-icing system. Read More


What is a Runway Excursion? A runway excursion as “An event in which an aircraft veers off or overruns the runway surface during either take-off or landing.” Runway excursions lead to more runway accidents than all the other causes combined.

What causes a Runway Excursion? There are many factors that may cause a runway excursion, including;-

Runway contamination.

Adverse weather conditions.

Mechanical failure.

Pilot error.

Unstable approaches. Read More


Safety Culture is the way safety is perceived, valued and prioritised in an organisation. It reflects the real commitment to safety at all levels in the organisation. It has also been described as “how an organisation behaves when no one is watching”.

Safety Culture is not something you get or buy; it is something an organisation acquires as a product of the combined effects of Organisational Culture, Professional Culture and, often, National Culture.

Safety Culture can therefore be positive, negative or neutral. Its essence is in what people believe about the importance of safety, including what they think that their peers, superiors and leaders really believe about safety as a priority. Read More